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29 March 2006 Studies of the mechanism for immersion specific defects
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In the past several years, ArF immersion lithography has been developed rapidly for practical applications. One of the most important topics is the elucidation of a mechanism and its solution of immersion specific defects. In this paper, we report several analytical results of immersion specific defects. First, we classify several possible origins of specific defects that are proposed based on our experiment on the actual immersion process and previous literature. We focused on a droplet of immersion water that was the origin of circular and deformed circular-type defects. Further, a watermark (WM) was created on some types of film stacks with or without the topcoat (TC) on the resist. We observed that all samples exhibited the trace of the WM. From chemical surface analyses, we obtained different types of components in the residue of the WM, which dried spontaneously. These components depended on the tested film stack. Some types were not always derived from leaching materials in the resist. Some components in the residue appeared to be airborne contaminants that were unregulated in machines used in the photolithography process. Based on the results of these tests, we discussed some methods for avoiding defects according to the droplet WM.
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Takeo Ishibashi, Tetsuro Hanawa, Toshifumi Suganaga, Koichiro Narimatsu, Kazuyuki Suko, Mamoru Terai, Teruhiko Kumada, and Tomoyuki Ando "Studies of the mechanism for immersion specific defects", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 61533I (29 March 2006);

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