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5 April 2006 Sliding mode control of a spherical haptic device featuring electrorheological fluid
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This paper presents force-feedback control performance of a new type of haptic device featuring spherical geometry and smart materials that can be used for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A spherical electrorheological (ER) joint is designed and optimized based on the mathematical torque modeling. Force response of the manufactured ER joint is then experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, the 2-DOF force-feedback device is manufactured by integrating the spherical ER joint with AC motor. In order to achieve desired force trajectories of the haptic device, a sliding mode controller (SMC), which is robust to uncertainty, is formulated and experimentally realized. Tracking control performances for various force trajectories are presented in time domain, and their tracking errors are evaluated.
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Young-Min Han, Hung Quoc Nguyen, and Seung-Bok Choi "Sliding mode control of a spherical haptic device featuring electrorheological fluid", Proc. SPIE 6173, Smart Structures and Materials 2006: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, 61730H (5 April 2006);

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