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14 February 2007 Compact optical design for dual-axes confocal endoscopic microscopes
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Here we describe a simple optical design for a MEMS-based dual-axes fiber optic confocal scanning microscope that has been miniaturized for handheld imaging of tissues, and which is capable of being further scaled to smaller dimensions for endoscope compatibility while preserving its field-of-view (FOV), working distance, and resolution. Based on the principle of parallel beams that are focused by a single parabolic mirror to a common point, the design allows the use of replicated optical components mounted and aligned within a rugged cylindrical housing that is designed for use as a handheld tissue microscope. A MEMS scanner is used for high speed scanning in the X-Y plane below the tissue surface. An additional design feature is a mechanism for controlling a variable working distance, thus producing a scan in the Z direction and allowing capture of 3-D volumetric images of tissue. The design parameters that affect the resolution, FOV, and working distance are analyzed using ASAPTM optical modeling software and verified by experimental results. Other features of this design include use of a solid immersion lens (SIL), which enhances both resolution and FOV, and also provides index matching between the optics and the tissue.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Michael J. Mandella, Jonathan T. C. Liu, Wibool Piyawattanametha, Hyejun Ra, Pei-Lin Hsiung, Larry K. Wong, Olav Solgaard, Thomas D. Wang, Christopher H. Contag, and Gordon S. Kino "Compact optical design for dual-axes confocal endoscopic microscopes", Proc. SPIE 6443, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XIV, 64430E (14 February 2007);

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