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7 March 2007 Fabrication of photonic crystals using chemical lithography
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Abstract
In the past two decades, photonic crystals (PhCs) have received rapidly increasing attentions for their unique properties of confining, directing and manipulating the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Since the lattice constant is usually comparable to the operating wavelength, advanced lithography techniques are borrowed from integrated circuits (ICs) fabrication to pattern PhCs. For many applications working in visible or near infrared light, however, fabrication of PhCs is difficult unless E-beam system or high-end stepper is employed. In this paper, we present a new lithography method, Chemical Lithography (ChemLith), for the fabrication of planar PhCs. The concept is based on the fact that most of the commonly used photoresists change their solubility upon an acid-catalyzed chemical reaction. In photolithography, photo acid generator (PAG) is mixed in the resist formula, and the acid is generated by photon-initiated reactions. Using photons sets the fundamental limit on the feature size for photolithography. To overcome this limit, we propose to physically introduce the catalyzing acid (proton source) to the desired position on the resist surface. Using a prefabricated template, we have implemented this concept for patterning of planar PhCs. In this work, we have tested different acids as well as commercially available resist systems. We will show some of the experiment results, and discuss potential issues of the proposed method for further development.
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Peng Yao, Maciej Murakowski, Lindsay Prather, Garrett J. Schneider, Janusz Murakowski, and Dennis W. Prather "Fabrication of photonic crystals using chemical lithography", Proc. SPIE 6462, Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics V and Microfabrication Process Technology XII, 64620R (7 March 2007); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.701473
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