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21 March 2007 Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance
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Optical tracking systems pioneered the use of position sensors in surgical navigation. The requirement to maintain a clear line-of-sight between the emitters and detectors, however, renders them unsuitable for tracking flexible invasive instruments. On the other hand, advances in electromagnetic tracking systems permit a key-enabling role in imageguided procedures. First-generation magnetic systems present a significant challenge for tracker designers to improve both performance and acceptance. Troublesome magnetic problems include inaccuracies due to the presence of metallic distorters in the tracking volume and to dynamic motion of the tracked object. A new magnetic tracker (3D GuidanceTM), recently developed at Ascension Technology, seeks to address these problems. Employing third-generation pulsed-DC magnetic tracking technology and new signal processing techniques, the new tracker overcomes the distorting effects of non-magnetic conductive metals (300-series stainless steel, titanium and aluminum) and composite tables experienced by AC trackers. Ascension has developed a break-through flat transmitter that negates ferrous metal distortion emanating from procedural tables. The tracker development has also significantly advanced the state of the art in sensor miniaturization. The 3D GuidanceTM features the world's smallest electromagnetic tracking sensors, opening the door to new applications for minimally invasive procedures. Finally, dynamic accuracy has been significantly improved with the implementation of Kalman based algorithms. Test results are reported.
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Mark Schneider and Charles Stevens "Development and testing of a new magnetic-tracking device for image guidance", Proc. SPIE 6509, Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures, 65090I (21 March 2007);

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