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21 March 2007 Monte Carlo simulated coronary angiograms of realistic anatomy and pathology models
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We have constructed a fourth generation anthropomorphic phantom which, in addition to the realistic description of the human anatomy, includes a coronary artery disease model. A watertight version of the NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom was generated by converting the individual NURBS surfaces of each organ into closed, manifold and non-self-intersecting tessellated surfaces. The resulting 330 surfaces of the phantom organs and tissues are now comprised of ~5×106 triangles whose size depends on the individual organ surface normals. A database of the elemental composition of each organ was generated, and material properties such as density and scattering cross-sections were defined using PENELOPE. A 300 μm resolution model of a heart with 55 coronary vessel segments was constructed by fitting smooth triangular meshes to a high resolution cardiac CT scan we have segmented, and was consequently registered inside the torso model. A coronary artery disease model that uses hemodynamic properties such as blood viscosity and resistivity was used to randomly place plaque within the artery tree. To generate x-ray images of the aforementioned phantom, our group has developed an efficient Monte Carlo radiation transport code based on the subroutine package PENELOPE, which employs an octree spatial data-structure that stores and traverses the phantom triangles. X-ray angiography images were generated under realistic imaging conditions (90 kVp, 10° Wanode spectra with 3 mm Al filtration, ~5×1011 x-ray source photons, and 10% per volume iodine contrast in the coronaries). The images will be used in an optimization algorithm to select the optimal technique parameters for a variety of imaging tasks.
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Iacovos S. Kyprianou, Andreu Badal, Aldo Badano, Diemphuc Banh, Melanie Freed, Kyle J. Myers, and Laura Thompson "Monte Carlo simulated coronary angiograms of realistic anatomy and pathology models", Proc. SPIE 6509, Medical Imaging 2007: Visualization and Image-Guided Procedures, 65090O (21 March 2007);

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