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8 March 2007 Ambient lighting: setting international standards for the viewing of softcopy chest images
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Clinical radiological judgments are increasingly being made on softcopy LCD monitors. These monitors are found throughout the hospital environment in radiological reading rooms, outpatient clinics and wards. This means that ambient lighting where clinical judgments from images are made can vary widely. Inappropriate ambient lighting has several deleterious effects: monitor reflections reduce contrast; veiling glare adds brightness; dynamic range and detectability of low contrast objects is limited. Radiological images displayed on LCDs are more sensitive to the impact of inappropriate ambient lighting and with these devices problems described above are often more evident. The current work aims to provide data on optimum ambient lighting, based on lesions within chest images. The data provided may be used for the establishment of workable ambient lighting standards. Ambient lighting at 30cms from the monitor was set at 480 Lux (office lighting) 100 Lux (WHO recommendations), 40 Lux and <10 Lux. All monitors were calibrated to DICOM part 14 GSDF. Sixty radiologists were presented with 30 chest images, 15 images having simulated nodular lesions of varying subtlety and size. Lesions were positioned in accordance with typical clinical presentation and were validated radiologically. Each image was presented for 30 seconds and viewers were asked to identify and score any visualized lesion from 1-4 to indicate confidence level of detection. At the end of the session, sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Analysis of the data suggests that visualization of chest lesions is affected by inappropriate lighting with chest radiologists demonstrating greater ambient lighting dependency. JAFROC analyses are currently being performed.
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Mark F. McEntee, John Ryan, Micheal G. Evanoff, Aoife Keeling, Dev Chakraborty, David Manning, and Patrick C. Brennan "Ambient lighting: setting international standards for the viewing of softcopy chest images", Proc. SPIE 6515, Medical Imaging 2007: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, 65150M (8 March 2007);

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