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5 April 2007 Polypyrrole operating voltage limits in aqueous sodium hexafluorophosphate
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Actuation of polypyrrole in aqueous sodium hexafluorophosphate solution has been shown to produce relatively large strains. However little has been published on appropriate potential range of actuation in this electrolyte. This information is clearly crucial for applications. Our particular interest is in disposable applications where a relatively small number of cycles are needed, and maximum strain is desired. The electrochemical degradation as a function of voltage is investigated by cycling the film between fixed voltages and measuring the charge transfer. The experiment was done on a glassy carbon substrate in order to reduce effects of change in resistance with oxidation state, preventing actuation. The dependence of charging on voltage and the rate of reduction in the extent of charging are measured. The voltage range for effective operation of the device was found to be -0.4 V to 0.8 V versus a Ag/AgCl reference electrode in order to achieve stable performance over at least 30 minutes. The mechanisms of degradation at potentials beyond 0.8 V appear to be the substitution of hydroxyl ions in the polymer backbone, as suggested in reports on degradation of polypyrrole in other electrolytes. An observed reduction in charge transfer rate at potentials lower than -0.4 V is consistent with a reduction in ionic conductivity at highly reduced states, as has also been suggested in the literature.
© (2007) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Tina Shoa, Matthew Cole, Nigel R. Munce, Victor Yang, and John D. Madden "Polypyrrole operating voltage limits in aqueous sodium hexafluorophosphate", Proc. SPIE 6524, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2007, 652421 (5 April 2007);

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