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29 January 2008 Red vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for consumer applications
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Abstract
There are many potential applications of visible, red (650nm - 690nm) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) including high speed (Gb) communications using plastic optical fiber (POF), laser mouse sensors, metrology, position sensing. Uncertainty regarding the reliability of red VCSELs has long been perceived as the most significant roadblock to their commercialization. In this paper we will present data on red VCSELs optimized for performance and reliability that will allow exploitation of this class of VCSEL in a wide range of high volume consumer, communication and medical applications. VCSELs operating at ~665nm have been fabricated on 4" GaAs substrates using MOCVD as the growth process and using standard VCSEL processing technology. The active region is AlGaInP-based and the DBR mirrors are made from AlGaAs. Threshold currents are typically less than 2mA, the devices operate up to >60C and the light output is polarized in a stable, linear characteristic over all normal operating conditions. The 3dB modulation bandwidth of the devices is in excess of 3GHz and we have demonstrated the operation of a transceiver module operating at 1.25Gb/s over both SI-POF and GI-POF. Ageing experiments carried out using a matrix of current and temperature stress conditions allows us to estimate that the time to failure of 1% of devices (TT1%F) is over 200,000h for reasonable use conditions - making these red VCSELs ready for commercial exploitation in a variety of consumer-type applications. Experiments using appropriate pulsed driving conditions have resulted in operation of 665nm VCSELs at a temperature of 85°C whilst still offering powers useable for eye-safe free space and POF communications.
© (2008) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Geoffrey Duggan, David A. Barrow, Tim Calvert, Markus Maute, Vincent Hung, Brian McGarvey, John D. Lambkin, and Torsten Wipiejewski "Red vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for consumer applications", Proc. SPIE 6908, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers XII, 69080G (29 January 2008); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.757779
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