Atlas-based segmentation has proven effective in multiple applications. Usually, several reference images are combined
to create a representative average atlas image. Alternatively, a number of independent atlas images can be used, from which multiple segmentations of the image of interest are derived and later combined. One of the major drawbacks of this approach is its large computational burden caused by the high number of required registrations. To address this problem, we introduce One Registration, Multiple Segmentations (ORMS), a procedure to obtain multiple segmentations with a single online registration. This can be achieved by pre-computing intermediate transformations from the initial atlas images to an average image. We show that, compared to the usual approach, our method reduces time considerably
with little or no loss in accuracy. On the other hand, optimum combination of these segmentations remains an unresolved problem. Different approaches have been adopted, but they are all far from the upper bound of any combination strategy. This is given by the
Combination Oracle, which classifies a voxel correctly if any individual segmentation coincides with the ground truth.
We present here a novel combination approach, based on weighting the different segmentations according to the mutual information between the test image and the atlas image after registration. We compare this method with other existing combination strategies using microscopic MR images of mouse brains, achieving statistically significant improvement in segmentation accuracy.