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29 April 2008 Electrical impedance tomography for underwater detection of buried mines
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The detection of buried land mines in soil is a well-studied problem; many existing technologies are designed and optimized for performance in different soil types. Research on mine detection in shallow water environments such as beaches, however, is much less developed. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) shows promise for this application. EIT uses current-stimulating and voltage-recording electrode pairs to measure trans-impedances in the volume directly beneath the electrode array, which sits flat over the ground surface. The trans-impedances are used to construct a conductivity profile of the volume. Non-metallic and metallic explosives appear as perturbations in the conductivity profile, and their location and size can be estimated. Lab testing has yielded promising results using a submerged array positioned over a sand bed. The instrument has also successfully detected surrogate mines in a traditional soil environment during field trials. Resolution of the detector is roughly half the pitch of electrodes in the array. In underwater lab testing, non-conducting targets buried in the sand are detected at a depth of 1.5 times the electrode pitch with the array positioned up to one electrode pitch above the sand bed. Results will be presented for metallic and non-metallic targets of various shapes and sizes.
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Gail Bouchette, Stéphane Gagnon, Philip Church, Tim Luu, and John McFee "Electrical impedance tomography for underwater detection of buried mines", Proc. SPIE 6953, Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Objects, and Obscured Targets XIII, 69530O (29 April 2008);

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