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10 September 2008 Large area assembled periodic nanoarrays by block copolymer templating and glancing angle deposition
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The use of self-assembled block copolymer structures to direct the formation of large area nanoscale features could provide a silicon-based fabrication-compatible means to supplement conventional lithographic techniques. Here, self-assembled monolayers of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer were utilized as structural elements for the production of pseudo-hexagonal close packed metallic nanoarrays. Metal ion loading of the P2VP block with simple aqueous solutions of anionic metal complexes is accomplished via protonation of this basic block, rendering it cationic; electrostatic attraction leads to a high local concentration of metal complexes within the protonated P2VP domain. The ordering of the copolymer micelles can be enhanced by solvent vapor annealing. The resulting templated large area metallic nanoclusters can serve as periodic seeds to grow nanofibrous thin films, which inherit the periodicity of the underlying seeds, by glancing angle deposition (GLAD). GLAD offers a high level of control over the composition and porosity of thin films microstructures, and has been used to make uniform and highly porous thin film architectures for applications such as photonic crystals.
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Jinan Chai, Michael T. Taschuk, Michael J. Brett, and Jillian M. Buriak "Large area assembled periodic nanoarrays by block copolymer templating and glancing angle deposition", Proc. SPIE 7041, Nanostructured Thin Films, 704111 (10 September 2008);

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