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20 February 2009 Near-infrared dyes for molecular probes and imaging
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Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence has been used both as an analytical tool as molecular probes and in in vitro or in vivo imaging of individual cells and organs. The NIR region (700-1100 nm) is ideal with regard to these applications due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. NIR dyes are also useful in studying binding characteristics of large biomolecules, such as proteins. Throughout these studies, different NIR dyes have been evaluated to determine factors that control binding to biomolecules, including serum albumins. Hydrophobic character of NIR dyes were increased by introducing alkyl and aryl groups, and hydrophilic moieties e.g., polyethylene glycols (PEG) were used to increase aqueous solubility. Recently, our research group introduced bis-cyanines as innovative NIR probes. Depending on their microenvironment, bis-cyanines can exist as an intramolecular dimer with the two cyanines either in a stacked form, or in a linear conformation in which the two subunits do not interact with each other. In this intramolecular H-aggregate, the chromophore has a low extinction coefficient and low fluorescence quantum yield. Upon addition of biomolecules, the H-and D- bands are decreased and the monomeric band is increased, with concomitant increase in fluorescence intensity. Introduction of specific moieties into the NIR dye molecules allows for the development of physiological molecular probes to detect pH, metal ions and other parameters. Examples of these applications include imaging and biomolecule characterizations. Water soluble dyes are expected to be excellent candidates for both in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells and organs.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Gabor Patonay, Garfield Beckford, Lucjan Strekowski, Maged Henary, Jun Seok Kim, and Sidney Crow "Near-infrared dyes for molecular probes and imaging", Proc. SPIE 7190, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications, 71900J (20 February 2009);

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