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26 January 2009 InP-based negative feedback avalanche diodes
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The operation of InP-based single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in Geiger mode provides great utility for the detection of single photons at near-infrared wavelengths between 1.0 and 1.6 um. However, SPADs have performance limitations with respect to photon counting rate and the absence of photon number resolution that, at the most fundamental level, can be traced back to the positive feedback inherent in the impact ionization-driven avalanche process. In this paper, we describe the inclusion of negative feedback with best-in-class InP-based single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) structures to form negative feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs) in which many of the present limitations of SPAD operation can be overcome. The use of thin film resistors as monolithic passive negative feedback elements ensures rapid self-quenching with very low parasitic effects and wafer-level integration for creating multi-element NFAD arrays. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this approach with InP-based avalanche diode structures. We present NFAD device properties, including pulse response, quenching dynamics, and photon counting performance parameters such as photon detection efficiency.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mark A. Itzler, Xudong Jiang, Bruce Nyman, and Krystyna Slomkowski "InP-based negative feedback avalanche diodes", Proc. SPIE 7222, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices VI, 72221K (26 January 2009);

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