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3 February 2009 Liquid crystal quantized GRIN lens and its application to AF systems
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Liquid crystal devices are suitable for spatial light modulators, since their half-wave voltage is only a few volts and can be driven directly by CMOS ICs. In this paper, we describe liquid crystal GRIN lens with segmented ITO patterns. So ITO patterns are like zone plates. ITO segments are connected with smaller, highly resistive ITO links that produce voltage drops between the larger ITO segments. The voltage distribution causes a phase distribution across the modulator that can be generated by a simple 3-terminal input. Variable focus range of from plus-minus 150mm to infinity with 1.64mm diameter and good image quality is achieved.
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Nobuyuki Hashimoto and Makoto Kurihara "Liquid crystal quantized GRIN lens and its application to AF systems", Proc. SPIE 7232, Emerging Liquid Crystal Technologies IV, 72320N (3 February 2009);

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