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17 March 2009 Comparative study of DRAM cell patterning between ArF immersion and EUV lithography
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In this paper, we will present comparison of DRAM cell patterning between ArF immersion and EUV lithography which will be the main stream of DRAM lithography. Assuming that the limit of ArF immersion single patterning is around 40nm half pitch, EUV technology is positioned on essential stage because development stage of device manufacturer is going down sub-40nm technology node. Currently lithography technology, in order to improve the limitation of ArF immersion lithography, double patterning technology (DPT) and spacer patterning technology (SPT) have been examined intensively. However, double patterning and spacer patterning technology are not cost-effective process because of complexity of lithography process such as many hard mask stacks and iterative litho, etch process. Therefore, lithography community is looking forward to improving maturity of EUVL technology. In order to overcome several issues on EUV technology, many studies are needed for device application. EUV technology is different characteristics with conventional optical lithography which are non-telecentricity and mask topography effect on printing performance. The printed feature of EUV is shifted and biased on the wafer because of oblique illumination of the mask. Consequently, target CD and pattern position are changed in accordance with pattern direction, pattern type and slit position of target pattern.1 For this study, we make sub-40nm DRAM mask for ArF immersion and EUV lithography. ArF attenuated PSM (Phase Shift Mask) and EUV mask (LTEM) are used for this experiment; those are made and developed by in-house captive maskshop. Simulation and experiment with 1.35NA ArF immersion scanner and 0.25NA EUV full field scanner are performed to characterize EUV lithography and to compare process margin of each DRAM cell. Two types of DRAM cell patterns are studied; one is an isolation pattern with a brick wall shape and another is a storage node pattern with contact hole shape. Line and space pattern is also studied through 24nm to 50nm half pitch for this experiment. Lithography simulation is done by in-house tool based on diffused aerial image model. EM-SUITE and Solid-EUV are also used in order to study characteristics of EUV patterning through rigorous EMF simulation. We also investigated shadowing effect according to pattern shape and design rule respectively. We find that vertical to horizontal bias is around 2nm on 32nm to 40nm half pitch line and space pattern. In the case of DRAM cell, we also find same result with line and space pattern. In view of mask-making consideration, we optimize absorber etch process. So we acquire vertical absorber profile and mask MTT(Mean To Target) within 10% of target CD through several pitch. Process windows and mask error enhancement factors are measured with respect to several DRAM cell pattern. In the case of one dimensional line and space and two dimensional brick wall pattern, vertical pattern shows the best performance through various pitches because of lower shadowing effect than horizontal pattern. But in case of contact hole DRAM cell pattern such as storage node pattern, it has bigger MEF value than one or two dimensional pattern because of independency of shadowing effect. Finally, we compare with 2x, 3x and 4x DRAM cell patterning performance in terms of pattern fidelity, slit CD uniformity and shadowing effect.
© (2009) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Tae-Seung Eom, Sarohan Park, Jun-Taek Park, Chang-Moon Lim, Sunyoung Koo, Yoon-Suk Hyun, HyeongSoo Kim, Byung-Ho Nam, Chang-Reol Kim, Seung-Chan Moon, Noh-Jung Kwak, and Sungki Park "Comparative study of DRAM cell patterning between ArF immersion and EUV lithography", Proc. SPIE 7271, Alternative Lithographic Technologies, 727115 (17 March 2009);

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