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1 April 2009 Resolution and LWR improvements by acid diffusion control in EUV lithography
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A series of photoacid generator (PAG) with different anion size have been synthesized in order to investigate effects of diffusion length on exposure latitude (EL), resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) under EB and EUV exposure. Diffusion length measurement of these PAGs using a model bi-layer experiment revealed that acid diffusion length could be significantly reduced from 1.1 x 103 nm to 13.5 nm at PEB of 120 °C for 90 sec by utilizing the PAG having the biggest anchor group into anion. According to the suppression of acid diffusion, EL for both dense line and isolated line were well improved with maintaining high sensitivity under EB exposure. On the other hand, the relation between sensitivity and LWR were not improved at all. The same trend was also observed under EUV exposure. It is noteworthy that resolution was significantly improved by utilizing the PAG that shows the shortest acid diffusion length. As a result, relation between resolution and LWR was improved, and the Z-factor, which represents resist performance quantitatively, were also improved with the range from 9 % to 51 % by utilizing the PAG with shortest diffusion length into various resist formulations.
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Hideaki Tsubaki, Tooru Tsuchihashi, and Tomotaka Tsuchimura "Resolution and LWR improvements by acid diffusion control in EUV lithography", Proc. SPIE 7273, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVI, 72731K (1 April 2009);

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