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6 May 2009 Human factors guidelines for applications of 3D perspectives: a literature review
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Once considered too processing-intense for general utility, application of the third dimension to convey complex information is facilitated by the recent proliferation of technological advancements in computer processing, 3D displays, and 3D perspective (2.5D) renderings within a 2D medium. The profusion of complex and rapidly-changing dynamic information being conveyed in operational environments has elevated interest in possible military applications of 3D technologies. 3D can be a powerful mechanism for clearer information portrayal, facilitating rapid and accurate identification of key elements essential to mission performance and operator safety. However, implementation of 3D within legacy systems can be costly, making integration prohibitive. Therefore, identifying which tasks may benefit from 3D or 2.5D versus simple 2D visualizations is critical. Unfortunately, there is no "bible" of human factors guidelines for usability optimization of 2D, 2.5D, or 3D visualizations nor for determining which display best serves a particular application. Establishing such guidelines would provide an invaluable tool for designers and operators. Defining issues common to each will enhance design effectiveness. This paper presents the results of an extensive review of open source literature addressing 3D information displays, with particular emphasis on comparison of true 3D with 2D and 2.5D representations and their utility for military tasks. Seventy-five papers are summarized, highlighting militarily relevant applications of 3D visualizations and 2.5D perspective renderings. Based on these findings, human factors guidelines for when and how to use these visualizations, along with recommendations for further research are discussed.
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Sharon Dixon, Elisabeth Fitzhugh, and Denise Aleva "Human factors guidelines for applications of 3D perspectives: a literature review", Proc. SPIE 7327, Display Technologies and Applications for Defense, Security, and Avionics III, 73270K (6 May 2009);


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