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6 May 2009 Exploring the potential of energy and terrain awareness information in a synthetic vision display for UAV control
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This paper addresses the design and implementation of a conceptual Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Primary Flight Display format. The goal of this work is to explore the means to provide the operator of a UAV with an integrated view of the constraints for the velocity vector, resulting in an explicit depiction of the margins/boundaries of the multi-dimensional maneuver space. For non-time-critical situations, this is expected to provide support when the operator has the authority to manually set avoidance maneuvers, or approve, veto or modify velocity vector changes proposed by the automation. The integration of the upper bounds of the maneuver space, resulting from energy constraints, and the lower bounds, resulting from terrain will be illustrated. Additionally, the application of a maneuver cost function will be discussed, for identifying and prioritizing conflict avoidance options from an integrated multi-dimensional maneuver space, and communicating those to the operator. Although the integrated avoidance functions have been developed with the UAV application in mind, they have equal merit for manned aircraft. The need for specific GUI elements depends on the level of authority of the system and the role of the operator/pilot, which may differ between manned and unmanned applications.
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Jochum Tadema, Erik Theunissen, and Tony Lambregts "Exploring the potential of energy and terrain awareness information in a synthetic vision display for UAV control", Proc. SPIE 7328, Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 2009, 732809 (6 May 2009);

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