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5 May 2010 Finite-difference time domain based electro-optical methodologies to improve CMOS image sensor pixels performances
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The current CMOS image sensors market trend leads to achieve good image resolution at small package size and price, thus CMOS image sensors roadmap is driven by pixel size reduction while maintaining good electro-optical performances. As both diffraction and electrical effects become of greater importance, it is mandatory to have a simulation tool able to early help process and design development of next generation pixels. We have previously introduced and developed FDTD-based optical simulations methodologies to describe diffraction phenomena. We recently achieved to couple them to an electrical simulation tool to take into account carrier diffusion and precise front-end process simulation. We propose in this paper to show the advances of this methodology. After having detailed the complete methodology, we present how we reconstruct the spectral quantum efficiency of a pixel. This methodology requires heavy-to-compute realistic 3D modeling for each wavelength: the material optical properties are described over the full spectral bandwidth by a multi-coefficient model, while the electrical properties are set by the given process and design. We optically simulate the propagation of a dozen of wavelengths at normal incidence and collect the distribution of the optical generation then we insert it in the electrical simulation tool and collect the final output quantum efficiency. Besides, we compare the off-axis performance evaluations of a pixel by simulating its relative illumination in a given wavelength. In this methodology several plane waves are propagated with different angles of incidence along a specific direction.
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Flavien Hirigoyen, Axel Crocherie, Pierre Boulenc, Jérôme Vaillant, Clément Tavernier, and Didier Hérault "Finite-difference time domain based electro-optical methodologies to improve CMOS image sensor pixels performances", Proc. SPIE 7723, Optics, Photonics, and Digital Technologies for Multimedia Applications, 772318 (5 May 2010);

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