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24 August 2010 Bio-inspired nano-engineering and genetic modification for nonlinear optical imaging
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The second-order nonlinear optical properties of a number of fluorescent proteins (FPs) (green, EGFP; yellow, EYFP and zFP538; red, DsRed, mStrawberry and mCherry) have been determined by frequency-resolved femtosecond hyper- Rayleigh scattering. In general, the more red-shifted the absorption and emission wavelength are, the larger the intrinsic, resonance-free, first hyperpolarizability is. The anomalously low first hyperpolarizability for the yellow EYFP variant had been rationalized in terms of the centrosymmetrical stacking between a phenolic residue and the tyrosine chromophoric moiety, leaving as effective non-centrosymmetric chromophore for second-order nonlinear effects only the small imidazolinone moiety. This has now been confirmed by the higher hyperpolarizability, in line with the observed trend from the EGFP benchmark to the more red-shifted FPs, which is observed for the yellow zFP538 variant exhibiting similar stacking yet with a histidine moiety, precluding the centrosymmetry effect.
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Evelien De Meulenaere, Wouter Vanderlinden, Jos Vanderleyden, and Koen Clays "Bio-inspired nano-engineering and genetic modification for nonlinear optical imaging", Proc. SPIE 7765, Nanobiosystems: Processing, Characterization, and Applications III, 77650K (24 August 2010);

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