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1 September 2010 Bidirectional reflectance distribution of a 2D thin-film photonic crystal patterned using an atomic-force microscope
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Bidirectional reflectance distribution has been measured from an atomic-force-microscope (AFM)-patterned surface for the first time. The AFM was used to generate a two-dimensional square array of sub-wavelength surface features from a single material at a scale large enough to permit optical characterization. A diamond nano-indentation AFM probe was used to produce a 325-μm by 200-μm array of indentations in a 120-nm-thick polystyrene film deposited on silicon. Indentation spacing of 400 nm produced well-defined surface features with a maximum height of 140 nm. The full size array was achieved by tiling together single arrays, limited in size by the AFM scanner range, through the use of the AFM's translation stage. An SMS Complete Angle Scatter Instrument (CASI) was used to measure in-plane bidirectional reflectance at incident angles ranging from 0 to 80 degrees. Because of the small array size, the CASI beam was focused to approximately 140 μm and recalibrated using a 10-μm AFM calibration standard. Two wavelengths were investigated, 633 and 544 nm, at both s and p incident polarizations. Negative-first-order diffraction peaks were observed that were consistent with feature spacing. An anomalous scatter peak, believed to be associated with guidedmode resonance of the structure, was also observed. This is the first demonstration of an AFM-patterned polymer surface to behave as a 2D photonic crystal. The ability to construct and image arrays of optically active nano-features has potential DoD applications in laser eye protection and anti-reflection coatings for high power laser optics.
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Nicholas C. Herr, Michael A. Marciniak, Alex G. Li, and Larry W. Burggraf "Bidirectional reflectance distribution of a 2D thin-film photonic crystal patterned using an atomic-force microscope", Proc. SPIE 7792, Reflection, Scattering, and Diffraction from Surfaces II, 77920H (1 September 2010);

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