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29 September 2010 Aliovalent Doping of CeBr3
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Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce, commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties with crystal growth of large, crack-free single crystals of these fragile materials. Aliovalent doping was employed to strengthen CeBr3 in an effort to ease crystal growth constraints and improve ingot yields. Six divalent (Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) and two tetravalent cations (Zr4+ and Hf4+) were investigated as dopants to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 500ppm and 1000ppm of each dopant were grown. Fluorimetry, preliminary scintillation, and preliminary fracture toughness measurements are presented for these aliovalently-doped scintillators. While Ca2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hf4+ all exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 300nm excitation, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+, and Zr4+ exhibited varying degrees of red-shifting. As expected, Pb2+ had a drastic detrimental effect on scintillation. Initial microindentation data indeed indicates a noticeable increase in the fracture toughness of the doped crystals as compared to undoped CeBr3.
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M. J. Harrison, P. Ugorowski, C. Linnick, S. Brinton, D. S. McGregor, F. P. Doty, S. Kirpatrcik, and D. F. Bahr "Aliovalent Doping of CeBr3", Proc. SPIE 7806, Penetrating Radiation Systems and Applications XI, 78060M (29 September 2010);

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