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8 April 2011 Photoresist shrinkage effects at EUV
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Volumetric mechanical resist shrinkage is shown to cause pattern distortions and profile footing. The shrinkage-induced pattern distortions include corner rounding effects and are essentially the explanation for the corner rounding bias previously observed by Anderson et al.[1]. Two previously-studied mechanisms for resist shrinkage are described: SEM-induced shrinkage and deprotection-induced shrinkage. A third mechanism, shrinkage induced at post-apply bake is also described. Experiments indicate that SEM-induced shrinkage accounts for the vast majority of shrinkage and pattern distortion while deprotection-induced shrinkage, although present, does not contribute significantly to pattern distortion. Shrinkage due to post-apply bake was not observed and thought to be insignificant. A three-dimensional model for shrinkage, based on the standard elastostatic problem in solid mechanics was implemented into a lithography simulator. The model was able to predict two dimensional pattern distortions similar to those observed experimentally.
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Thomas V. Pistor, Thomas I. Wallow, Christopher N. Anderson, and Patrick P. Naulleau "Photoresist shrinkage effects at EUV", Proc. SPIE 7969, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography II, 796917 (8 April 2011);

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