Due to its uniform dispersion and higher diffraction efficiency, transmission volume phase holographic grating (VPHG)
has been widely used for astronomical spectroscopy, ultrafast lasers compressors and wavelength division multiplexers.
According to its application requirement and based on the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA), a transmission
VPHG with a frequency of 196lp/mm is designed and manufactured in this paper. The thickness of gelatin and the
modulation of refraction index are optimized for high diffraction efficiency over a wavelength range from 420nm to
1000nm. The grating was recorded in dichromate gelatin (DCG) and in a symmetrical light path. By controlling the coating,
exposure and post-processing conditions, the thickness of gelatin and the modulation of refraction index can be adjusted.
The diffraction efficiency varied within the required wave band and the polarization property of the illumination wave
were measured and compared with that of the theoretical ones. From the results, it can be seen that by adjusting and
controlling the preparation conditions of DCG plates, the exposure value and post-processing technique, the peak
diffraction efficiency of VPHG reaches to 47% and the average diffraction efficiency is above 35% in the spectral
coverage, which is close to the theoretical values. This transmission VPHG can be applied in a prism-grating-prism (PGP)