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2 February 2012 Fluorescent nanodiamonds as highly stable biomarker for endotoxin verification
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Abstract
Fluorescent nanodiamonds (ND) provide advantageous properties as a fluorescent biomarker for in vitro and in vivo studies. The maximum fluorescence occurs around 700 nm, they do not show photobleaching or blinking and seem to be nontoxic. After a pretreatment with strong acid fluorescent ND can be functionalized and coupled to endotoxin. Endotoxin is a decay product of bacteria and causes strong immune reactions. Therefore endotoxin has to be removed for most applications. An effective removal procedure is membrane filtration. The endotoxin, coupled to fluorescent ND can be visualized by using confocal microscopy which allows the investigation of the separation mechanisms of the filtration process within the membranes.
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Thorsten Bergmann, Jan Michael Burg, Maria Lilholt, Ulf Maeder, Sebastian Beer, Denise Salzig, Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Peter Czermak, and Martin Fiebich "Fluorescent nanodiamonds as highly stable biomarker for endotoxin verification", Proc. SPIE 8233, Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical Applications IV, 82331H (2 February 2012); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.909251
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