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15 February 2012 Femtosecond laser writing of polarization devices for optical circuits in glass
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In this paper we examine the birefringence of buried optical waveguides written with femtosecond lasers in bulk fused silica glass. We report two modes of low and high birefringence associated with strong form birefringence and the orientation of nanogratings that align perpendicular to the writing laser polarization. The birefringence and waveguide losses are characterized over various laser exposure conditions to facilitate the fabrication of low-loss and compact wave retarders and polarization beam splitters for integration into polarization controlled circuits. Zero-order quarter-wave and half-wave retarders together with polarization beam splitters are demonstrated, all operating at telecom wavelengths. Integration of such devices is targeted for application in photonic quantum circuits.
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Luís A. Fernandes, Jason R. Grenier, Peter R. Herman, J. Stewart Aitchison, and Paulo V. S. Marques "Femtosecond laser writing of polarization devices for optical circuits in glass", Proc. SPIE 8247, Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XII, 82470M (15 February 2012);

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