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17 February 2012 Measurement of distances between anatomical structures using a translating stage with mounted endoscope
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During endoscopic procedures it is often desirable to determine the distance between anatomical features. One such clinical application is percutaneous cochlear implantation (PCI), which is a minimally invasive approach to the cochlea via a single, straight drill path and can be achieved accurately using bone-implanted markers and customized microstereotactic frame. During clinical studies to validate PCI, traditional open-field cochlear implant surgery was performed and prior to completion of the surgery, a customized microstereotactic frame designed to achieve the desired PCI trajectory was attached to the bone-implanted markers. To determine whether this trajectory would have safely achieved the target, a sham drill bit is passed through the frame to ensure that the drill bit would reach the cochlea without damaging vital structures. Because of limited access within the facial recess, the distances from the bit to anatomical features could not be measured with calipers. We hypothesized that an endoscope mounted on a sliding stage that translates only along the trajectory, would provide sufficient triangulation to accurately measure these distances. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and testing of such a system is described. The endoscope is mounted so that its optical axis is approximately aligned with the trajectory. Several images are acquired as the stage is moved, and threedimensional reconstruction of selected points allows determination of distances. This concept also has applicability in a large variety of rigid endoscopic interventions including bronchoscopy, laparoscopy, and sinus endoscopy.
© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Lueder A. Kahrs, Gregoire S. Blachon, Ramya Balachandran, J. Michael Fitzpatrick, and Robert F. Labadie M.D. "Measurement of distances between anatomical structures using a translating stage with mounted endoscope", Proc. SPIE 8316, Medical Imaging 2012: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 83160X (17 February 2012);

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