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16 April 2012 Measurement of kidney stone formation in the rat model using micro-computed tomography
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Kidney stones were induced in 5 rats by treating them with 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride through free drinking water for six weeks. The animals were anesthetized and imaged in vivo before the treatment at week 0, to obtain baseline data, then at weeks 2 and 6 to monitor the kidney stone formation. Micro-CT imaging was performed with x-ray tube voltage of 90 kV and a current of 40 mA. At week 2, kidney stone formation was observed. A micro-computed tomography methodology of estimating the volume and hydroxyapatite-equivalent mineral content of the kidney stone is presented. It determines the threshold CT number (390 HU) that separates the kidney stone from the tissue. The mean volume of the stones in the 10 kidneys significantly increased from 3.81±0.72 mm3 at week 2 to 23.96±9.12 mm3 at week 6 (p<0.05, r2=0.34). Measurement precision error was about 4%. This method allows analysis of the kidney stone formation to be carried out in vivo, with fewer experimental animals compared with other ex vivo methods, in which animals are sacrificed. It is precise, accurate, non-destructive, and could be used in pre-clinical research to study the formation of kidney stones in live small animals.
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Joseph U. Umoh, Vasek Pitelka, Harvey A. Goldberg, and David W. Holdsworth "Measurement of kidney stone formation in the rat model using micro-computed tomography", Proc. SPIE 8317, Medical Imaging 2012: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, 831721 (16 April 2012);

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