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24 October 2012 High-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon waveguides
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Proceedings Volume 8412, Photonics North 2012; 84120M (2012)
Event: Photonics North 2012, 2012, Montréal, Canada
Silica-on-silicon planar lightwave circuits have a number of advantages including stability and low insertion loss to optical fiber networks. Standard GeO2 doping levels in the waveguide cores lead to a refractive index contrast, n/n, of 0.75%–2%. This range of index contrast requires relatively large bend radii in order to minimize bend losses. This limits the density scaling of these circuits. By using high dopant levels for a Δn/n of 4%, the bend radius can be decreased to less than 1 mm, from which significant gains in optical circuit density can be obtained. In addition, low-loss ring resonators with free spectral ranges of a few tens of gigahertz can be realized, enabling some additional optical signal processing and filtering on that scale. Optical devices with such high dopant levels have been reported by Bellman et al. in 2004 [1] but to the authors' knowledge, no other experimental work on high-delta GeO2-doped waveguides has been reported since. In this paper, we present experimental measurements on high-delta devices including directional couplers, MMI couplers, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and ring resonators. Device performance, including propagation loss, bend loss, interferometer contrast ratio and birefringence will be presented. We demonstrate that ring resonators with 40 GHz free spectral range can be fabricated for optical signal processing.
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Patrick Dumais, Claire Callender, Chantal Blanchetière, and Chris Ledderhof "High-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon waveguides", Proc. SPIE 8412, Photonics North 2012, 84120M (24 October 2012);

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