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9 May 2012 A 64 single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18 µm CMOS standard technology with versatile quenching circuit for quick prototyping
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Abstract
Several works have demonstrated the successfully integration of Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode in a standard CMOS circuit for the last 10 years. These devices offer an exceptional temporal resolution as well as a very good optical sensitivity. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the expected performances of such a device. Indeed, for a similar structure of SPAD, some parameter values can differ by two orders of magnitude from a technology to another. We proposed here a procedure to identify in just one or two runs the optimal structure of SPAD available for a given technology. A circuit with an array of 64 SPAD has been realized in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. It encompasses an array of 8 different structures of SPAD reproduced in 8 diameters in the range from 5 μm up to 40 μm. According to the SPAD structures, efficient shallow trench insulator and/or P-Well guard ring are used for preventing edge breakdown. Low dark count rate of about 100 Hz are expected thanks to the use of buried n-well layer and a high resistivity substrate. Each photodiode is embedded in a pixel which includes a versatile quenching circuitry and an analog output of its cathode voltage. The quenching system is configurable in four operation modes; the SPAD is disabled, the quenching is completely passive, the reset of the photodiode is active and the quenching is fully active. The architecture of the array makes possible the characterization of every single photodiode individually. The parameters to be measured for a SPAD are the breakdown avalanche voltage, the dark count rate, the dead time, the timing jitter, the photon detection probability and the after-pulsing rate.
© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Wilfried Uhring, Jean-Pierre Le Normand, Virginie Zint, Norbert Dumas, Foudil Dadouche, Imane Malasse, and Jeremy Scholz "A 64 single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18 µm CMOS standard technology with versatile quenching circuit for quick prototyping", Proc. SPIE 8439, Optical Sensing and Detection II, 84391E (9 May 2012); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.922130
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