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15 October 2012 Competition of linearly polarized modes in fibers with Bragg gratings over a wide temperature range
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Abstract
Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) embedded in conventional fibers may serve as temperature sensors over a wide temperature range and withstand temperatures around 1200 K. A variety of linearly polarized (LP) modes for the wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm may be sustained in fibers with and without FBGs. The composition of the LP modes and their competition is instrumental for understanding physics of thermo-optics and thermal expansion effects in silica-based fibers. The first objective of this work was to model mathematically the competition between LP modes and modal distribution using the solutions of Bessel equations for the fibers with and without the gratings. Computer generated modes were constructed and the cut-off V-numbers (and Eigen values W and U) were determined. Theoretical results then were compared with experimental observations of LP modes for two separate ranges of temperatures: 77– 300 K and 300-1200 K. To study the formation of LP modes over the first temperature range, liquid nitrogen was used to cool down the fiber and a thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature of the fiber. Real time recording of the modal structure was performed using digital imaging and data acquisition instrumentation. To study LP modes between 300– 1200 K, the fibers were inserted into a tube furnace with temperature control. The wavelength of the infrared radiation was reflected by a FBG and detected by an optical spectrum analyzer. Radiation at the visible wavelength propagated through the fibers, and transmitted visible light was collected, analyzed and recorded with a CCD camera to monitor distribution of the LP modes in the samples with and without the FBGs.
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Sergei Lyuksyutov, Grigory Adamovsky, Jeffrey R. Mackey, Bertram Floyd, Ujitha Abeywickrema, and Igor Fedin "Competition of linearly polarized modes in fibers with Bragg gratings over a wide temperature range", Proc. SPIE 8497, Photonic Fiber and Crystal Devices: Advances in Materials and Innovations in Device Applications VI, 849707 (15 October 2012); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.928667
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