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15 October 2012 Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates
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The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be < 90%. For this work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4” glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.
© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Raegan L. Johnson-Wilke, Rudeger H. T. Wilke, Vincenzo Cotroneo, William N. Davis, Paul B. Reid, Daniel A. Schwartz, and Susan Trolier-McKinstry "Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates", Proc. SPIE 8503, Adaptive X-Ray Optics II, 85030A (15 October 2012);

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