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26 November 2012 Wafer-level micro-optics: trends in manufacturing, testing, packaging, and applications
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Abstract
Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology (KET) for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the last decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks (supercomputer, ROADM), bringing high-speed internet to our homes (FTTH). Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flashlight shaping elements, the secondary camera, and ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. We report on the state of the art in wafer-based manufacturing, testing, packaging and present examples and applications for micro-optical components and systems.
© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Reinhard Voelkel, Li Gong, Juergen Rieck, and Alan Zheng "Wafer-level micro-optics: trends in manufacturing, testing, packaging, and applications", Proc. SPIE 8557, Optical Design and Testing V, 855702 (26 November 2012); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.981779
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