The analysis of retinal blood vessels is very important in the detection of some diseases in early stages, such as
hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. The bifurcations and crossovers are important
feature points, which play important roles in the analysis of the retinal vessel tree. These feature points have been
demonstrated to be important features in many visual tasks such as image registration, mosaicing, and segmentation. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect vascular bifurcations and crossovers in fundus images. The Gaussian filter
is applied to the blue channel of the original color retinal images to suppress the central reflex and reduce the candidate points. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Hessian matrix are then obtained in multiple scales to provide the structural and directional information. By computing the anisotropy and isotropy of neighboring image segments for each pixel in a
retinal image, we define a multi-scale vessel filter which combines the responses of tubular structures and the responses of bifurcations and crossovers. Finally, the proposed method has been tested with publicly available database STARE
and DRIVE. The experimental results show that bifurcations, crossovers and tubular structures can be detected simultaneously. And the proposed method performs well in detecting the bifurcations and crossovers which are in thin vessels or low contrast vessels.