The emerging concept of structural health management relies on extensive onboard diagnostic sensors that can provide near real-time information about the state of a structure so that informed prognostic assessment can be made of the continuing reliability of the structure. In this paper, we will discuss two types of sensing platforms that can provide valuable information about the state of a structure: 1D fiber-optic sensors and 2D thin-film sensors. Both fiber-optic and thin film sensors are easily integrated with structures, and can offer local and/or distributed sensing capabilities. Parameters that can be sensed include: static and dynamic strain, acoustic emission, vibration, corrosion products, moisture ingression etc. We will first describe some recent developments in dynamic strain sensing using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Applications to detection of acoustic emission and impact will be described. In the area of chemical sensing, we will describe a nanofilm-coated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) long-period grating (LPG) sensing platform. PCF-LPG sensors can be designed to provide greater interaction between the analyte of interest and the light propagating in the fiber, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. Applications to humidity sensing will be described. Finally, 2D thin-film sensors on polymer substrates will be discussed. One type of sensor we have been fabricating is based on reduced graphene oxide for large-area chemical sensing applications. It is expected that these 1D and 2D sensing platforms will form part of a suite of sensors that can provide diagnostic structural health information.