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31 May 2013 A paper-based inkjet-fabricated substrate for SERS detection and differentiation of PCR products
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Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive sensing technique, offering sensitivity comparable to that of fluorescence while providing structure-dependent analyte information. In recent years, we have developed an innovative optofluidic SERS substrate by inkjet printing metal nanoparticles onto paper. By virtue of generating a SERS substrate on cellulose, we gain a flexible SERS sensing device, as well as the ability to harness the intrinsic wicking properties of paper to enable both separation and concentration of analytes. Here we demonstrate the application of paper-chromatographic separation to allow on-substrate separation, concentration and discrimination. By using inexpensive single-labeled DNA probes in a typical PCR amplification, we obtain a mixture containing whole probes (negative result) and probes which have been hydrolyzed by the Taq polymerase (positive result). Leveraging the solubility differences between the whole and hydrolyzed probes and the cellulose separation matrix, we are able to perform a multiplexed interrogation of the targets. Notably, this does not require the use of dual labeled DNA probes (expensive) or multiple excitation sources and filter sets needed for a multiplexed fluorescence measurement (expensive and bulky). All SERS measurements are performed using a portable spectrometer and diode laser; in combination with a portable low-power DNA amplification system, this technique has the potential to be used for rapid on-site multiplexed genetic detection, without requiring complex optical equipment.
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Eric P. Hoppmann and Ian M. White "A paper-based inkjet-fabricated substrate for SERS detection and differentiation of PCR products", Proc. SPIE 8718, Advanced Environmental, Chemical, and Biological Sensing Technologies X, 871804 (31 May 2013);

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