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22 May 2013 Source localization results for airborne acoustic platforms in the 2010 Yuma Proving Ground test
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Acoustic sensors are being employed on airborne platforms, such as Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) and Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS), for source localization. Under certain atmospheric conditions, airborne sensors offer a distinct advantage over ground sensors. Among other factors, the performance of airborne sensors is affected by refraction of sound signals due to vertical gradients in temperature and wind velocity. A comprehensive experiment in source localization with an aerostat-mounted acoustic system was conducted in summer of 2010 at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). Acoustic sources on the ground consisted of one-pound TNT denotations and small arms firings. The height of the aerostat was approximately 1 km above the ground. In this paper, horizontal, azimuthal, and elevation errors in source localization and their statistics are studied in detail. Initially, straight-line propagation is assumed; then refraction corrections are introduced to improve source localization and decrease the errors. The corrections are based on a recently developed theory [Ostashev, et. al, JASA 2008] which accounts for sound refraction due to vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity. During the 2010 YPG field test, the vertical profiles were measured only up to a height of approximately 100 m. Therefore, the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to generate the profiles for July of 2010.
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Vladimir E. Ostashev, Sandra L. Collier, Christian G. Reiff, Sylvain Cheinet, David A. Ligon, D. Keith Wilson, John M. Noble, and William C. Alberts "Source localization results for airborne acoustic platforms in the 2010 Yuma Proving Ground test", Proc. SPIE 8742, Ground/Air Multisensor Interoperability, Integration, and Networking for Persistent ISR IV, 87420K (22 May 2013);

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