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15 October 2013 Effects of high power illuminators on vision through windscreens and driving behavior
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In this study we investigated the effectiveness of high power illuminators that are intended to be used as warning devices or non-lethal weapons to deny car drivers their view on the outside world through windscreens. The test is based on a measurement of the amount of veiling glare resulting when a high intensity light source hits a windscreen. We measured the veiling glare for new, used and colored windscreens that were either clean or dirty. We found no significant difference between the scatter function for new, used and colored windows. The scatter function for dirty windscreens is a factor 14 larger than for clean windscreens. We also derived a method to assess the impact of the illumination of a windscreen by a high intensity light source on driving behavior. The method is based on the assumption that drivers reduce their speed when veiling glare reduces the detection distance of objects on the road. Estimates of respectively the detection distance for objects on the road and the maximum safe driving speed are directly related to operational requirements, and can therefore be used to assess the operational effectiveness of high intensity light sources as powerful warning devices or non-lethal weapons.
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Alexander Toet and Johan W. A. M. Alferdinck "Effects of high power illuminators on vision through windscreens and driving behavior", Proc. SPIE 8898, Technologies for Optical Countermeasures X; and High-Power Lasers 2013: Technology and Systems, 88980I (15 October 2013);

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