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19 February 2014 High-density optical interconnects by using silicon photonics
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One of the most serious challenges facing the exponential performance growth in the information industry is a bandwidth bottleneck in inter-chip interconnects. Optical interconnects with silicon photonics have been expected to solve the problem because of the intrinsic properties of optical signals and the industrial advantages of silicon for use in the electronics industry. We therefore propose an optical interconnect system by using silicon photonics to solve the problem. We examined integration between photonics and electronics and integration between light sources and silicon substrates, and we propose a photonics-electronics convergence system based on these examinations. We also investigated the configurations and characteristics of optical components for the system, including silicon spot-size converters, silicon optical waveguides, silicon optical splitters, silicon optical modulators, germanium photodetectors, and arrayed laser diodes. We then demonstrated the feasibility of the system by fabricating a high-density silicon optical interposer by using silicon photonics hybridly integrated with arrayed laser diodes and monolithically integrated with the other optical components on a single silicon substrate. The pad pitches of optical modulators and photodetectors were designed to be 100 μm so that LSI bare chips were able to contact to them electrically by flip-chip bonding. Since this system was optically complete and closed and no temperature sensitive component was used, we did not need to align the fibers, control the polarization, or control the temperature throughout the experiments. As a result, we achieved errorfree data links at 20 Gbps and high bandwidth density of 30 Tbps/cm2 with the silicon optical interposer.
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Yutaka Urino, Tatsuya Usuki, Junichi Fujikata, Masashige Ishizaka, Koji Yamada, Tsuyoshi Horikawa, Takahiro Nakamura, and Yasuhiko Arakawa "High-density optical interconnects by using silicon photonics", Proc. SPIE 9010, Next-Generation Optical Networks for Data Centers and Short-Reach Links, 901006 (19 February 2014);

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