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16 April 2014 Yttrium oxide based three dimensional metamaterials for visible light cloaking
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Metamaterial with negative refractive index is the key phenomenon behind the concept of a cloaking device to hide an object from light in visible spectrum. Metamaterials made of two and three dimensional lattices of periodically placed electromagnetic resonant cells can achieve absorption and propagation of incident electromagnetic radiation as confined electromagnetic fields confined to a waveguide as surface plasmon polaritons, which can be used for shielding an object from in-tune electromagnetic radiation. The periodicity and dimensions of resonant cavity determine the frequency, which are very small as compared to the wavelength of incident light. Till now the phenomena have been demonstrated only for lights in near infrared spectrum. Recent advancements in fabrication techniques have made it possible to fabricate array of three dimensional nanostructures with cross-sections as small as 25 nm that are required for negative refractive index for wavelengths in visible light spectrum of 400-700 nm and for wider view angle. Two types of metamaterial designs, three dimensional concentric split ring and fishnet, are considered. Three dimensional structures consisted of metal-dielectric-metal stacks. The metal is silver and dielectric is yttrium oxide, other than conventional materials such as FR4 and Duroid. High κ dielectric and high refractive index as well as large crystal symmetry of Yttrium oxide has been investigated as encapsulating medium. Dependence of refractive index on wavelength and bandwidth of negative refractive index region are analyzed for application towards cloaking from light in visible spectrum.
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Pratyush Rai, Prashanth S. Kumar, Vijay K. Varadan, Paul Ruffin, Christina Brantley, and Eugene Edwards "Yttrium oxide based three dimensional metamaterials for visible light cloaking", Proc. SPIE 9060, Nanosensors, Biosensors, and Info-Tech Sensors and Systems 2014, 90601D (16 April 2014);

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