According to the 2013 ASCE report card America’s infrastructure scores only a D+. There are more than four million miles of roads (grade D) in the U.S. requiring a broad range of maintenance activities. The nation faces a monumental problem of infrastructure management in the scheduling and implementation of maintenance and repair operations, and in the prioritization of expenditures within budgetary constraints. The efficient and effective performance of these operations however is crucial to ensuring roadway safety, preventing catastrophic failures, and promoting economic growth. There is a critical need for technology that can cost-effectively monitor the condition of a network-wide road system and provide accurate, up-to-date information for maintenance activity prioritization. The Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (VOTERS) project provides a framework and the sensing capability to complement periodical localized inspections to continuous network-wide health monitoring. Research focused on the development of a cost-effective, lightweight package of multi-modal sensor systems compatible with this framework. An innovative software infrastructure is created that collects, processes, and evaluates these large time-lapse multi-modal data streams. A GIS-based control center manages multiple inspection vehicles and the data for further analysis, visualization, and decision making. VOTERS’ technology can monitor road conditions at both the surface and sub-surface levels while the vehicle is navigating through daily traffic going about its normal business, thereby allowing for network-wide frequent assessment of roadways. This deterioration process monitoring at unprecedented time and spatial scales provides unique experimental data that can be used to improve life-cycle cost analysis models.