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5 September 2014 All optical two-way time transfer in strongly heterogeneous networks
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We experimentally compared different options for interconnection of remote places in precise time transmission infrastructures. We aimed at lines with bidirectional single path amplification, as they provide the best results in term of time uncertainty. For links with high reflections and without accessible midpoints, the distributed Raman amplification has been tested. In case of dark channels with fibre based “last miles”, the Raman amplification in the last miles only has been verified. According to author’s knowledge, this is the first time when the distributed amplification is used for modulated precise time transmission over fiber. For reference, the traditional lumped EDFAs suitable for transmission links or dark channels with accessible mid-point have been compared.
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Josef Vojtĕch, Vladimír Smotlacha, and Jan Radil "All optical two-way time transfer in strongly heterogeneous networks", Proc. SPIE 9202, Photonics Applications for Aviation, Aerospace, Commercial, and Harsh Environments V, 92020S (5 September 2014);

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