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5 September 2014 Modeling stray light from rough surfaces and subsurface scatter
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Over the years we have developed an adequate theory and understanding of surface scatter from smooth optical surfaces (Rayleigh-Rice), moderately rough surfaces with paraxial incident and scattered angles (Beckmann- Kirchhoff) and even for moderately rough surfaces with arbitrary incident and scattered angles where a linear systems formulation requiring a two-parameter family of surface transfer functions is required to characterize the surface scatter process (generalized Harvey-Shack). However, there is always some new material or surface manufacturing process that provides non-intuitive scatter behavior. The linear systems formulation of surface scatter is potentially useful even for these situations. In this paper we will present empirical models of several classes of rough surfaces or materials (subsurface scatter) that allow us to accurately model the scattering behavior at any incident angle from limited measured scatter data. In particular, scattered radiance appears to continue being the natural quantity that exhibits simple, elegant behavior only in direction cosine space.
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James E. Harvey, John J. Goshy, and Richard N. Pfisterer "Modeling stray light from rough surfaces and subsurface scatter", Proc. SPIE 9205, Reflection, Scattering, and Diffraction from Surfaces IV, 92050I (5 September 2014);

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