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18 March 2015 Physics of a novel magnetic resonance and electrical impedance combination for breast cancer diagnosis
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A new technique is proposed and experimentally validated for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. The technique combines magnetic resonance with electrical impedance measurements and has the potential to increase the specificity of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) thereby reducing false positive biopsy rates. The new magnetic resonance electrical impedance mammography (MREIM) adds a time varying electric field during a supplementary sequence to a standard MRM examination with an apparatus that is “invisible” to the patient. The applied electric field produces a current that creates an additional magnetic field with a component aligned with the bore magnetic field that can alter the native signal in areas of higher electrical conductivity. The justification for adding the electric field is that the electrical conductivity of cancerous breast tissue is approximately 3-40 times higher than normal breast tissue and, hence, conductivity of malignant tissue represents a known clinical disease biomarker. In a pilot study with custom-made phantoms and experimental protocols, it was demonstrated that MREIM can produce, as theoretically predicted, a detectable differential signal in areas of higher electrical conductivity (tumor surrogate regions); the evidence indicates that the differential signal is produced by the confluence of two different effects at full image resolution without gadolinium chelate contrast agent injection, without extraneous reconstruction techniques, and without cumbersome multi-positioned patient electrode configurations. This paper describes the theoretical model that predicts and explains the observed experimental results that were also confirmed by simulation studies.
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Maria Kallergi, John J. Heine, and Ernest Wollin "Physics of a novel magnetic resonance and electrical impedance combination for breast cancer diagnosis", Proc. SPIE 9412, Medical Imaging 2015: Physics of Medical Imaging, 94125L (18 March 2015);

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