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18 March 2015 Evaluation of input devices for teleoperation of concentric tube continuum robots for surgical tasks
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For those minimally invasive surgery where conventional surgical instruments cannot reach the surgical site due to their straight structure and rigidity, concentric tube continuum robots are a promising technology because of their small size (comparable to a needle) and maneuverability. These flexible, compliant manipulators can easily access hard to reach anatomical structures, e.g. by turning around corners. By teleoperating the robot the surgeon stays in direct control at any time. In this paper, three off-the-shelf input devices are considered for teleoperation of a concentric tube continuum robot: a 3D mouse, a gamepad, and a 3 degrees of freedom haptic input device. Three tasks which mimic relevant surgical maneuvers are performed by 12 subjects using each input device: reaching specific locations, picking and placing objects from one location to another, and approaching the surgical site through a restricted pathway. We present quantitative results (task completion time, accuracy, etc.), a statistical analysis, and empirical results (questionnaires). Overall, the performance of subjects using the 3D mouse was superior to the performance using the other input devices. The subjective ranking of the 3D mouse by the subjects confirms this result.
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Carolin Fellmann, Daryoush Kashi, and Jessica Burgner-Kahrs "Evaluation of input devices for teleoperation of concentric tube continuum robots for surgical tasks", Proc. SPIE 9415, Medical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 94151O (18 March 2015);

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