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21 May 2015 Ellipsoids for anomaly detection in remote sensing imagery
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For many target and anomaly detection algorithms, a key step is the estimation of a centroid (relatively easy) and a covariance matrix (somewhat harder) that characterize the background clutter. For a background that can be modeled as a multivariate Gaussian, the centroid and covariance lead to an explicit probability density function that can be used in likelihood ratio tests for optimal detection statistics. But ellipsoidal contours can characterize a much larger class of multivariate density function, and the ellipsoids that characterize the outer periphery of the distribution are most appropriate for detection in the low false alarm rate regime. Traditionally the sample mean and sample covariance are used to estimate ellipsoid location and shape, but these quantities are confounded both by large lever-arm outliers and non-Gaussian distributions within the ellipsoid of interest. This paper compares a variety of centroid and covariance estimation schemes with the aim of characterizing the periphery of the background distribution. In particular, we will consider a robust variant of the Khachiyan algorithm for minimum-volume enclosing ellipsoid. The performance of these different approaches is evaluated on multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery using coverage plots of ellipsoid volume versus false alarm rate.
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Guenchik Grosklos and James Theiler "Ellipsoids for anomaly detection in remote sensing imagery", Proc. SPIE 9472, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XXI, 94720P (21 May 2015);


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