The sensitivity of hyper-spectral remote sensing to the directional reflectance of surfaces was studied using both laboratory and field measurements. Namely, the effects of the specular- and diffuse-reflectance properties of a set of eight samples, ranging from high to low in both total reflectance and specularity, on diffuse-only and diffusespecular radiative transfer models in the long-wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14-μm wavelength) were studied. The samples were measured in the field as a set of eight panels, each in two orientations, with surface normal pointing toward zenith and tipped at 45° from zenith. The field-collected data also included down-welling spectral sky radiance at several angles from zenith to the horizon, ground spectral radiance, panel spectral radiances in both orientations, Infragold® spectral radiances in both orientations near each panel location, and panel temperatures. Laboratory measurements included spectral hemispherical, specular and diffuse directional reflectance (HDR, SDR and DDR) for each sample for several reflectance angles with respect to the surface normal. The diffuse-only radiative transfer model used the HDR data, while the diffuse-specular model used the SDR and DDR data. Both calculated spectral reflected and self-emitted radiances for each panel, using the field-collected sky radiance data to avoid uncertainties associated with atmospheric models. The modeled spectral radiances were then compared to the field-collected values to quantify differences in moving from an HDR-based model to an SDR/DDR model in the LWIR for a variety of surface-reflectance types.