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28 September 2015 The measurement of an aspherical mirror by three-dimensional nanoprofiler
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Aspherical optical elements with high accuracy are important in several fields such as third-generation synchrotron radiation and extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Then the demand of measurement method for aspherical or free-form surface with nanometer resolution is rising. Our purpose is to develop a non-contact profiler to measure free-form surfaces directly with repeatability of figure error of less than 1 nm PV. To achieve this purpose we have developed three-dimensional Nanoprofiler which traces normal vectors of sample surface. The measurement principle is based on the straightness of LASER light and the accuracy of a rotational goniometer. This machine consists of four rotational stages, one translational stage and optical head which has the quadrant photodiode (QPD) and LASER head at optically equal position. In this measurement method, we conform the incident light beam to reflect the beam by controlling five stages and determine the normal vectors and the coordinates of the surface from signal of goniometers, translational stage and QPD. We can obtain three-dimensional figure from the normal vectors and the coordinates by a reconstruction algorithm. To evaluate performance of this machine we measure a concave aspherical mirror ten times. From ten results we calculate measurement repeatability, and we evaluate measurement uncertainty to compare the result with that measured by an interferometer. In consequence, the repeatability of measurement was 2.90 nm (σ) and the difference between the two profiles was ±20 nm. We conclude that the two profiles was correspondent considering systematic errors of each machine.
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Yusuke Tokuta, Kenya Okita, Kohei Okuda, Takao Kitayama, Motohiro Nakano, Shun Nakatani, Ryota Kudo, Kazuya Yamamura, and Katsuyoshi Endo "The measurement of an aspherical mirror by three-dimensional nanoprofiler", Proc. SPIE 9628, Optical Systems Design 2015: Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Metrology V, 962814 (28 September 2015);

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