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15 October 2015 Potential accuracy of translation estimation between radar and optical images
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This paper investigates the potential accuracy achievable for optical to radar image registration by area-based approach. The analysis is carried out mainly based on the Cramér–Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) on translation estimation accuracy previously proposed by the authors and called CRLBfBm. This bound is now modified to take into account radar image speckle noise properties: spatial correlation and signal-dependency. The newly derived theoretical bound is fed with noise and texture parameters estimated for the co-registered pair of optical Landsat 8 and radar SIR-C images. It is found that difficulty of optical to radar image registration stems more from speckle noise influence than from dissimilarity of the considered kinds of images. At finer scales (and higher speckle noise level), probability of finding control fragments (CF) suitable for registration is low (1% or less) but overall number of such fragments is high thanks to image size. Conversely, at the coarse scale, where speckle noise level is reduced, probability of finding CFs suitable for registration can be as high as 40%, but overall number of such CFs is lower. Thus, the study confirms and supports area-based multiresolution approach for optical to radar registration where coarse scales are used for fast registration “lock” and finer scales for reaching higher registration accuracy. The CRLBfBm is found inaccurate for the main scale due to intensive speckle noise influence. For other scales, the validity of the CRLBfBm bound is confirmed by calculating statistical efficiency of area-based registration method based on normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) measure that takes high values of about 25%.
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M. Uss, B. Vozel, V. Lukin, and K. Chehdi "Potential accuracy of translation estimation between radar and optical images", Proc. SPIE 9643, Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XXI, 96430W (15 October 2015);

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